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Nanoparticles are highly emerging particles which are used for textile coloration. Actually, the nano-sized pigment is used in textile finishing. The advantages of using nanoparticles are nanoparticles can be sized in any shape and they can be dispersed well to avoid aggregation of the nanoparticles in dye baths.
Exhaust dyeing of cationized cotton with nanoscale component dispersion has been shown good result recently and dyeing gives better soft handle and more brilliant shade. So, nanoparticles are very much appropriate for textile coloration.
Using Supercritical Carbon di Oxide (ScC02): The using of ScC02 in dyeing is very much eco- friendly in the textile industry. ScC02 coloration technology has some potential to overcome many technical and environmental issues in many textile applications like Yarn preparation, coloration and finishing.
ScC02 is a unique media for either transporting chemical because super-critical fluids take gas-like viscosities and diffusivities and liquid-like densities. Because C02 is non –toxic, non-flammable, environmentally friendly and chemically inert under some conditions.
This its production is less costly. Supercritical fluids are really produced by the effects of gas and liquid changes in pressure and temperature. In the carbon phase diagram, the triple point occurs where temperature, volume and pressure remain in the same phase.
The critical point for carbon dioxide occurs at a pressure of 73.8 bar and its temperature is 31.1-degree Celsius.
Using plasma technology: Plasma is a partially ionized gas which contains ions, electrons and neutral particles produced by the interaction of the electromagnetic field with gas under appropriate pressure.
The pretreatment and finishing of textile fabrics can be replaced against the wet chemical method. One of the most expecting and advanced polymer modification techniques is low-temperature plasma treatment, which allows the surface properties to be varied over a wide range and the area of application of polymeric materials to be considerably extended.
This surface modification increases the hydrophilicity of the treated fiber. An important characteristic of plasma treatment is that it affects only the surface of a material subjected to treatment and a very thin near-surface layer whose thickness varies from 100A * to several micrometers, according to different estimates.
The conditions, retaining the mechanical, physio chemicals and electrochemical properties of organic material. The UV photons emitted by plasma have sufficient energy to break chemical bonds (e.g.: C-C, C-H) and to create radicals which can transfer along the chain and regenerate. It is depended on the plasma conditions and on the nature of the polymer.
Using Microwave Process: Microwave promoted organic reactions as well- known as environmental methods that can enhance a great number of chemical processes.
In particular, the reaction time and energy input are supposed to be mostly reduced in the reactions that are run for a long time at high temperatures under conventional conditions. Microwave is volumetric heating fast whereas conventional is a surface heating slowly.
Figure 8: Microwave heating (volumetric) vs conventional heating (surface).
Using of the ultrasonic system: Power ultrasound increases a wide variety of chemical and physical processes, mainly on account of the incident known as cavitation in a liquid medium that is the growth and explosive collapse of microscopic bubbles. The sudden and explosive collapse of these bubbles can make hot spots.
Finally, we can say that the coloration process is essential to our textile industry. The new technology helps the industry to reduce environment pollution and this technology helps to reduce M:L ratio. It is helpful to reduce cost in the dyeing industry. So, all dyeing industry should launch the new technology of dyeing and printing also.
[Note: The article is written based on review paper ‘Coloration Process of Textile Fibers’ published in International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, Volume 9, Issue 11, November -2018, ISSN-2229-5518]